Since it is May 28 and I happened to remember on the day, for a change, I thought it worth mentioning to both history and astronomy buffs, that at May 28, 585 B.C., the Battle of Halys took place. This battle is significant for two reasons.
First, the battle stopped abruptly when solar eclipse darkened the battlefield. This was taken as an omen that the gods wanted the fighting to cease.
Second, because the dates of solar eclipses can be predicted, it is the earliest historical event to which the date is known to such precision.
Actually, the battle is significant to me for a third reason, which involves the story that I have been working on for the last few months, in which the history of the battle and the eclipse that abruptly ended it, both play a small, but significant role.
Astrologers are constantly claiming the stars shape the fortunes of humanity. I think the battle of Halys is a perfect example of this, although I am certain it is not what the astrologers mean when discussing the dawning of the age of aquarius.
Today is my ninth leap day (1972 was a leap year, but I was born after February 29 so I don’t count that one. Leap day always makes me think of the history of leap day, which in turn gets me thinking about the intricacies of calendars and of keeping time in general. Man, the hoops we’ve jumped through to keep the calendar in line with the seasons!
I often wonder why I find history and science so fascinating. With science, it’s what Richard Feynman called “the pleasure of finding things out”. We learn how the universe around us evolved and how it all works. With history, I suppose, it’s similar, except instead of learning how the universe works, we learn how people work–or rather, why we are the way we are. Durant’s inaugural book in the Story of Civilization looks tries to tell this story by combing through 4,000 years of the history of mankind, with a specific look at the birth, evolution and eventual death of the oldest civilizations.
Reading the book, I noticed patterns. There are those people in history who stand out, whose names we remember for thousands of years, good or bad. Amenhotep. Ashurbanipal. Alexander. Darius. Buddha. Confucius. And there are the millions of everyday people. We get specific details about Alexander and generalizations about the masses. But even from those generalization, we have some inkling of how people lived. What fascinates me is how little has changed in human nature. The problems that men struggled with 4,000 years ago are the same problems we struggle with today. The everyday concerns and stressors are still there. Putting food on the table. Supporting our families. The moral codes ignored equally well today as they were thousands of years ago, whenever it is convenient to do so. The question becomes, what does it mean to be civilized? Reading history, one begins to wonder. We think of ourselves as more civilized today than at any time in the past, but there were periods of time when the standards seemed higher.
I find fascinating reading about people with stoic qualities. I don’t know why this is. I was impressed by those Buddhists who gave away all of their possessions and sought peace and tranquility in the wilderness. I was impressed by those generals and warriors who treated their enemies with a dignity and respect almost unheard of today. I was impressed by the quality and quantity of literature and art developed by these ancient civilizations. Art was as important to civilization 4,000 years ago as food and trade. Today, it seems to take a backseat to just about everything else.
When I got to the end of the book, I found myself wishing there was more, and glad to recall that 10 more volumes existed for me to pour over. Will Durant has an impressive writing style, a keen insight, a witty sense of humor, and an almost bitter sense of irony, especially when comparing mistakes of the distant past to similar mistakes being made all over again today. The first book in the series was incredible, I’ve never before read a history book quite like it. I felt as though I learned more history in 40 days than I learned in 12 years of grade school and 4 years of college. I highly recommend it to anyone who is fascinated by history.
I left China behind this morning at around 5:30 AM and at once started on the last part of Our Oriental Heritage, Japan. Keeping in mind that this particular book was published in 1935 (and therefore written some years before), I found this passage particularly interesting:
The third act is modern Japan, opened up in 1853 by an American fleet, forced by conditions within and without into trade and industry, seeking foreign materials and markets, fighting wars of irrepressible expansion, imitating the imperialistic ardor and methods of the West, and threatening both the ascendancy of the white race and the peace of the world. By every historical precedent the next act will be war.
pp. 829, emphasis mine.
What impresses me about the passage is the ability of the author to see so clearly where things were heading. Maybe everyone in 1930 could see war with Japan on the horizon, but I don’t think so. We tend to be too inwardly focus to see the signs until right before it is upon us. It takes a historian, one with the vast context of all of history laid out before him, to see and identify the patterns and cast off a warning that we should learn from history lest we repeat our mistakes again and again.
The Japanese have studied our civilization carefully, in order to absorb its values and surpass it. Perhaps we should be wise to study their civilization as patiently as they have studied ours, so that when the crisis comes that must issue either in war or understanding, we may be capable of understanding.
Reading the chapter on Confucius, I came across the most remarkable passage, attributed to the sage. It is a passage that from the ground up, instructs a nation to be a nation of highest virtue. What it all seems to come down to, according to Confucius, is knowledge. Why is the question for knowledge so vitally important? Because
The ancients who wished to illustrate the highest virtue throughout the empire first ordered well their own states. Wishing to order well their own states, they first regulated their families. Wishing to regulate their families, the first cultivated their own selves. Wishing to cultivate their own selves, they first rectified their hearts. Wishing to rectify their hearts, they first sought to be sincere in their thoughts. Wishing to be sincere in their thoughts, they first extended to the utmost their knowledge. Such extension of knowledge lay in the investigation of things.
Things being investigated, knowledge became complete. Their knowledge being complete, their thoughts were sincere. Their thoughts being sincere, their hearts were rectified. Their hearts being rectified, their own selves were cultivated. Their own selves being cultivated, their families were regulated. Their families being regulated, their states were rightly governed. Their states being rightly governed, the whole empire was made tranquil and happy.
Is this a recipe for success if I’ve ever heard one? Imagine how, for instance, this applies to us today. Would anyone consider our current state of affairs tranquil and happy? So we look to our leaders and ask are we being rightly governed? And so forth and so on down the line until we get to the investigation of things. Are we learning enough? Are we exploring enough? Not just our world but our history, our culture and our selves? There is a natural order to the progression of investigation up and up through our selves, our family, our government to tranquility and happiness. I think Confucius was on to something here.
How does one go about accumulating 12,000 wives, as did King Krishna Raya during India’s middle ages? (They are listed among his “modest” possessions.) I did the math. To sleep once with each wife, assuming a different wife every night would take more than 32 years!
In rather sharp contrast to the ancient Sumerians, Egyptians, Jews and Persians, this, which reminds me of something that several of us might have heard in Ray Linn’s 12th grade philosophy class:
Out of the aphorisms of Brihaspati came a whole school of Hindu materialists, named after one of them, Charvakas. They laughed at the notion that the Vedas were divinely revealed truth; truth, they argued, can never be known, except through the senses. Even reason is not to be trusted, for every inference depends for its validity not only upon accurate observation and correct reasoning, but also upon the assumption that the future will behave like the past; and of this, as Hume was to say, there can be no certainty. What is not perceived by the senses, said the Charvakas, does not exist; therefore the soul is a delusion, and Atman is humbug. We do not observe, in experience or history, any interposition of supernatural forces in the world. All phenomenon are natural; only simpletons trace them to demons or gods. Matter is the one reality; the body is a combination of atoms; the mind is merely matter thinking; the body, not the soul, feels, sees, hears, thinks. “Who has seen the soul existing in a state separate from the body?” There is no immortality, no re-birth. Religion is an aberration, a disease, or a chicanery; the hypothesis of a god is useless for explaining or understanding the world. Men think religion is necessary only because, being accustomed to it, they feel a sense of loss, and an uncomfortable void, when the growth of knowledge destroys this faith. Morality, too, is natural; it is a social convention and convenience, not a divine command. Nature is indifferent to good and bad, virtue and vice, and lets the sun shine indiscriminately upon knaves and saints; if nature has any ethical quality at all it is that of transcendent immortality. There is no need to control instinct and passion, for these are the instructions of nature to men. Virtue is a mistake; the purpose of life is living, and the only wisdom is happiness.
—Our Oriental Heritage, pp. 418-19
Looking back on it, I’m surprised that we didn’t cover this. Maybe I just don’t remember.
Another great Will Durant quote, this in the midst of a chapter on the mental elements of civilization (emphasis is mine):
The Polynesians had a calendar of thirteen months, regulated by the moon; when their lunar year diverged too flagrantly from the procession of the seasons they dropped a moon, and the balance was restored. But such sane uses of the heavens were exceptional; astrology antedated–and perhaps will survive–astronomy; simple souls are more interested in telling fortunes than in telling time.
I couldn’t have said it better myself!
So today is 9/11, six years later. The day has faded a great deal in my mind and if it weren’t for my diary, I probably wouldn’t remember any details. And sometimes, I think it’s better that way.
Here in the office, it’s a poignant day for many people. The north side of our building looks down directly on the Pentagon and there were many people in the building who saw the plane go into the Pentagon. It’s a kind of somber day here, therefore, not helped much by the rain.
Also, it’s Tuesday, and if I remember correctly, September 11, 2001 was also a Tuesday.
Today, August 6, marks the 62nd anniversary of the dropping of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima. I have read 3 books on the history of the atomic bomb, those involved in building it, and those involved in trying to prevent its proliferation thereafter. It gives me a bit of hope that in the 62 years since Hiroshima and Nagasaki, governments have been smart enough not to use them in anger again. And while no one can say for sure that they won’t be used again (whether by sovereign nation or terrorist group), restraint seems much the way it would be in a 12-step program. You take it one day at a time, steadily building a history and before you know it, you’ve got 62 years sober.
I finished Barry Malzberg’s Breakfast in the Ruins on the train ride home this evening and it was absolutely terrific! While I don’t necessarily agree with his positions on science fiction, he is an amazing writer with incisive insights into all aspects of the genre. He writes with emotion and gravitas and I completely enjoyed this “extended” version of The Engines of the Night
Next on tap: a couple of history books, first on Greek history and then Roman history. I have an almost complete set of history books that Isaac Asimov wrote for Houghton Mifflin over the years (beginning in the 1960s and well into the 1970s). I’ve only ever read one of them (The Land of Canaan) and seeing how I will be in Italy and Greece soon, I thought boning up on my Greek and Roman history was just the thing. I’ve read Will Durant’s The Life of Greece and portions of his book Caesar and Christ, but I was looking for something a little bit lighter and I think these two books will fit the bill perfectly.
(And if they really work out well, I’ll add The Shaping of England and The Shaping of France to the list, since I will also be in London and Paris during my trip.)
I’m starting with Asimov’s The Greeks and therefore, for the next couple of days, it’s all Greek to me!
I came across this cool kinetic map during lunch and thought it was worth mentioning. It illustrates thousands of years of the rise and fall of empires in the Middle East. I’ve never seen anything quite like it. It’s worth taking a look at.
I’ve got to go interview someone now…